conferences.bib

@inproceedings{AlbLam02-ECAI-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Evelina Lamma},
  title = {Synthesis of Object Models from Partial Models: a {CSP} Perspective},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fifteenth European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2002)},
  pages = {116-120},
  year = {2002},
  editor = {Frank van Harmelen},
  volume = {77},
  series = {Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications},
  month = {July},
  publisher = {IOS Press},
  abstract = {In this work we present an approach for the synthesis of object models
(expressed as Constraint Satisfaction Problems, CSPs) from views or
partial models (expressed, in their turn, as CSPs as well).

The approach we propose is general enough to consider different types
of features and relationships in the views. This is achieved by
introducing the notion of model representation, where features,
relationships and their domains are expressed. The (complete) model
can be synthesized through a proper algorithm, which provides a
albeling between the (complete) model and the partial models'
components.  The generated CSP representing the synthesized model must
satisfy (or, better, entail) any constraint among features and any
relationship occurring in each partial model. 

The framework is applied for synthesizing object models (i.e., CSP
descriptions).  We provide two basic approaches for synthesizing a
minimal or a correct model, and we experiment them by considering some
case studies in artificial vision.},
  isbn = { 978-1-58603-257-9}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCiaGav03-ceemas-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and  Anna Ciampolini and Marco Gavanelli 
and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {A Social {ACL} Semantics by Deontic Constraints},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International/Central and Eastern European Conference on Multi-Agent Systems},
  editor = {V.Marik and J.Muller and M.Pechoucek},
  year = 2003,
  address = {Prague, Czech Republic},
  month = {June},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  number = 2691,
  pages = {204-213},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {3-540-40450-3},
  abstract = { In most proposals for multi-agent systems, an Agent Communication
  Language (ACL) is the formalism designed to express knowledge
  exchange among agents. However, a universally accepted standard for
  ACLs is still missing. Among the different approaches to the
  definition of ACL semantics, the \textit{social} approach seems the
  most appropriate to express semantics of communication in open
  societies of autonomous and heterogeneous agents.
  
  In this paper we propose a formalism (\textit{deontic constraints})
  to express social ACL semantics, which can be grounded on a
  computational logic framework, thus allowing automatic verification
  of compliance by means of appropriate proof procedures. We also show
  how several common communication performatives can be defined by
  means of deontic constraints.}
}
@inproceedings{AlbGavLam03-AIIA-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {An Abductive Interpretation for Open Agent Societies},
  booktitle = {AI*IA 2003: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 8th Congress of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence Pisa, Italy, September 23-26, 2003 Proceedings},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {2829},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  address = {Pisa, Italy},
  month = sep # { 23-26},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  pages = {287-299},
  url = {http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0302-9743&volume=2829&spage=287},
  pdf = {http://springerlink.metapress.com/media/3pvxje0ttl7xrg84qwtm/contributions/l/d/8/p/ld8p2ja8d94wkv6m_html/BodyRef/PDF/558_10956106_Chapter_24.pdf},
  editor = {A. Cappelli and F. Turini},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {3-540-20119-X},
  abstract = {The focus of this work is on the interactions among (possibly
  heterogeneous) agents that form an open society, and on the
  definition of a computational logic-based architecture for agent
  interaction. We propose a model where the society defines the
  allowed interaction protocols, which determine the ``socially''
  allowed agent interaction patterns. The semantics of protocols can
  be defined by means of social integrity constraints.  The main
  advantages of this approach are in the design of societies of
  agents, and in the possibility to detect undesirable behavior. In
  the paper, we present the model for societies ruled by protocols
  expressed as integrity constraints, and its declarative semantics. A
  sketch of the operational counterpart is also given.}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCheGav04-AT2AI-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {Compliance Verification of Agent Interaction: a Logic-based Tool},
  year = 2004,
  month = apr # {~13-16},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vol. II, Symposium ``From Agent Theory to Agent Implementation'' (AT2AI-4)},
  address = {Vienna, Austria},
  pages = {570--575},
  publisher = {{A}ustrian {S}ociety for {C}ybernetic {S}tudies},
  isbn = {3-85206-169-5},
  editor = {Robert Trappl},
  abstract = {
    In open societies of agents, where agents are autonomous and
  heterogeneous, it is not realistic to assume that agents will always
  act so as to comply to interaction protocols. Thus, the need arises
  for a formalism to specify constraints on agent interaction, and for
  a tool able to observe and check for agent compliance to
  interaction protocols.
  In this paper we present a Java-Prolog software component which can
  be used to verify compliance of agent interaction to
  protocols written in a logic-based formalism (Social
    Integrity Constraints).},
  url = {http://www.ai.univie.ac.at/~paolo/conf/at2ai4/}
}
@inproceedings{AlbDaoTor04-SAC-IC,
  title = {Specification and verification of agent interaction protocols in a logic-based system},
  author = {Marco Alberti and Davide Daolio and Paolo Torroni and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello},
  editor = {Hisham Haddad and
               Andrea Omicini and
               Roger L. Wainwright and
               Lorie M. Liebrock},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC),
               Nicosia, Cyprus, March 14-17, 2004},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  address = { New York, NY, USA},
  pages = {72--78},
  year = 2004,
  location = {Nicosia, Cyprus},
  acceptrate = {29\%},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/967900.967918},
  abstract = {
In multiagent systems, agent interaction is ruled by means of
interaction protocols. Compliance to protocols can be hardwired in
agent programs; however, this requires that only ''certified''
agents interact. In open societies, composed of autonomous and
heterogeneous agents whose internal structure is, in general, not
accessible, interaction protocols should be specified in terms of
the agent observable behaviour, and compliance should be verified
by an external entity. In this paper, we propose a Java-Prolog-CHR
system for verification of compliance of agents' behaviour to
protocols specified in a logic-based formalism (Social Integrity
Constraints). We also present the application of the formalism and
the system to the specification and verification of the FIPA
Contract-Net protocol.},
  isbn = {1-58113-812-1}
}
@inproceedings{AlbGavLam05-IJCAI-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {Abduction with hypotheses confirmation},
  booktitle = {IJCAI-05 Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence},
  year = {2005},
  editor = {Fausto Giunchiglia},
  pages = {1545--1546},
  publisher = {Professional Book Center},
  address = {USA},
  isbn = {0-938075-93-4},
  url = {http://www.ing.unife.it/docenti/MarcoGavanelli/publications/poster-ijcai05.ppt},
  pdf = {http://ijcai.org/papers/post-0385.pdf}
}
@article{AlbGavLam05-AIIA-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {The \textit{S}{CIFF} abductive proof-procedure},
  booktitle = {AI*IA 2005: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 9th Congress of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, Milan, Italy, September 21-32, 2005. Proceedings},
  year = {2005},
  editor = {Stefania Bandini and Sara Manzoni},
  journal = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  address = {Berlin},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  pages = {135-147},
  volume = {3673},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  abstract = {We propose an operational framework which builds on the classical
understanding of abductive reasoning in logic programming, and
extends it in several directions. The new features include the
ability to reason with a dynamic knowledge base, where new facts
can be added anytime, the ability to generate expectations about
such new facts occurring in the future (forecasting), and the
process of confirmation/disconfirmation of such expectations.},
  note = {IF: 0.302}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCheGav06-WSFM-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and
Paola Mello and Marco Montali and Sergio Storari and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {Computational Logic for Run-Time Verification of
Web Services Choreographies: exploiting the {SOCS-SI} tool},
  booktitle = {Web Services and Formal Methods  - 
Third International Workshop, WS-FM 2006 Vienna, Austria, September 8-9, 2006 Proceedings},
  year = {2006},
  editor = {Mario Bravetti  and Gianluigi Zavattaro},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  address = {Berlin/Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  pages = {58-72},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {3-540-38862-1},
  volume = {4184},
  doi = {10.1007/11841197_4},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11841197_4},
  abstract = {In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using a framework
based on computational logic, and mainly  defined in the context of
Multi-Agent Systems for Global Computing (SOCS UE Project), for
modeling choreographies of Web Services with respect to the
conversational aspect.

One of the fundamental motivations of using computational logic,
beside its declarative and highly expressive nature, is given by its
operational counterpart, that can provide a proof-theoretic
framework able to verify the consistency of services designed in a
cooperative ed incremental manner.

In particular, in this paper we show that suitable Social Integrity
Constraints, introduced in the SOCS social model, can be used for
specifying global protocols at the choreography level. In this way,
we can use a suitable tool, derived from the proof-procedure defined
in the context of the SOCS project, to check at run-time whether a
set of existing services behave in a conformant manner w.r.t. the
defined choreography.}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCheGav06-ISMIS-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello},
  title = {A verifiable logic-based agent architecture},
  booktitle = {Foundations of Intelligent Systems - 16th International
                  Symposium, ISMIS 2006 Bari, Italy, September 27-29,
                  2006 Proceedings},
  year = {2006},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  address = {Berlin Heidelberg},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {3-540-45764-X},
  volume = {4203},
  pages = {188--197},
  doi = {10.1007/11875604},
  editor = {
  Floriana Esposito and Zbigniew W. Ra\'{s} and Donato Malerba and Giovanni Semeraro},
  url = {http://www.di.uniba.it/~ismis2006/},
  abstract = {
  In this paper, we present the SCIFF platform for multi-agent
  systems.

  The platform is based on Abductive Logic Programming, with a uniform
  language for specifying agent policies and interaction protocols.  A
  significant advantage of the computational logic foundation of the
  SCIFF framework is that the declarative specifications of agent
  policies and interaction protocols can be used directly, at runtime,
  as the programs for the agent instances and for the verification of
  compliance.

  We also provide a definition of conformance of an agent policy to an
  interaction protocol (i.e., a property that guarantees that an agent
  will comply to a given protocol) and a operational procedure to test
  conformance.}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCheGav06-PPDP-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Marco Montali},
  title = {An Abductive Framework for A-Priori Verification of Web Services},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming, July 10-12, 2006, Venice, Italy},
  year = 2006,
  editor = {Michael Maher},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  month = jul,
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1140335.1140342},
  pages = {39--50},
  isbn = {1-59593-388-3},
  address = {New York, USA},
  doi = {10.1.1.182.5574},
  organization = {Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Special Interest Group on
  	Programming Languages (SIGPLAN)},
  abstract = {Although stemming from very different research areas, Multi-Agent
Systems (MAS) and Service Oriented Computing (SOC) share common
topics, problems and settings.  One of the common problems is the need
to formally verify the conformance of individuals (Agents or Web
Services) to common rules and specifications
(resp. Protocols/Choreographies), in order to provide a coherent
behaviour and to reach the goals of the user.

In previous publications, we developed a framework, SCIFF, for the
automatic verification of compliance of agents to protocols. The
framework includes a language based on abductive logic programming and
on constraint logic programming for formally defining the social
rules; suitable proof-procedures to check on-the-fly and a-priori the
compliance of agents to protocols have been defined.

Building on our experience in the MAS area, in this paper we make a
first step towards the formal verification of web services conformance
to choreographies. We adapt the SCIFF framework for the new settings,
and propose a heir of SCIFF, the framework A$^l$LoWS (Abductive Logic
Web-service Specification).  A$^l$LoWS comes with a language for
defining formally a choreography and a web service specification. As
its ancestor, A$^l$LoWS has a declarative and an operational
semantics. We show examples of how A$^l$LoWS deals correctly with
interaction patterns previously identified. Moreover, thanks to its
constraint-based semantics, A$^l$LoWS deals seamlessly with other
cases involving constraints and deadlines.}
}
@inproceedings{CheGavAlb06-CLIMA-IC,
  author = {Federico Chesani and Marco Gavanelli and Marco Alberti and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {Specification and Verification of Agent Interaction Using Abductive Reasoning},
  booktitle = {CLIMA VI},
  year = {2006},
  editor = {Francesca Toni and Paolo Torroni},
  series = {Lecture Notes on Artificial Intelligence},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  volume = {3900},
  address = {Berlin Heidelberg},
  pages = {243--264},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {3-540-33996-5},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11750734_14},
  abstract = {Amongst several fundamental aspects in multi-agent systems
  design, the definition of the agent interaction space is of the utmost
importance. The specification of the agent interaction has several facets:
syntax, semantics, and compliance verification.
In an open society, heterogenous agents can participate without showing
any credentials. Accessing their internals or their knowledge bases is
typically impossible, thus it is impossible to prove a priori that agents
will indeed behave according to the society rules.
Within the SOCS (Societies Of ComputeeS) project, a language based
on abductive semantics has been proposed as a mean to define interactions
in open societies. The proposed language allows the designer to
define open, extensible and not over-constrained protocols. Beside the
definition language, a software tool has been developed with the purpose
of verifying at execution time if the agents behave correctly with respect
to the defined protocols.
This paper provides a tutorial overview of the theory and of the tools
the SOCS project provided to design, define and test agent interaction
protocols.}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCheGav07-RR-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani and Marco Gavanelli
 and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Marco Montali and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {A rule-based approach for reasoning about collaboration between smart Web services},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Web Reasoning and Rule Systems (RR)},
  pages = {279--288},
  year = 2007,
  editor = {Massimo Marchiori and Jeff Z. Pan and Christian de Sainte Marie},
  volume = 4524,
  series = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  address = {Innsbruck},
  month = {June},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {978-3-540-72981-5},
  abstract = {We present a vision of smart, goal-oriented web services that
reason about other services, policies and evaluate the possibility of future
interactions. We assume web services whose behavioural interface
is specified in terms of reactive rules. Such rules can be made public,
in order for other web services to answer the following question: "is it
possible to inter-operate with a given web service and achieve a given
goal?". In this article we focus on the underlying reasoning process, and
we propose a declarative and operational abductive logic programming based
framework, called WAVe. We show how this framework can be
used for a-priori verification of web services interaction.}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCheGav07-ESWC-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani and Marco Gavanelli
 and Evelina Lamma and Paola Mello and Marco Montali and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {Web service contracting: specification and reasoning with SCIFF},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC)},
  pages = {68--83},
  year = 2007,
  editor = {Enrico Franconi and Michael Kifer  and Wolfgang May},
  volume = 4519,
  series = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  address = {Innsbruck},
  month = {June},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {978-3-540-72666-1},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  abstract = {The semantic web vision will facilitate automation of many tasks,
including the location and dynamic reconfiguration of web services. In
this article, we are concerned with a specific stage of web service
location, called, by some authors,  contracting. We address
contracting both at the operational level and at the semantic level. We
present a framework encompassing communication and reasoning, in which web
services exchange and evaluate goals and policies. Policies represent
behavioural interfaces. The reasoning procedure at the core of the
framework is based on the abductive logic programming SCIFF
proof-procedure. We describe the framework, show by examples how to
formalise policies in the declarative language of SCIFF, and give the
framework a model-theoretic and a sound proof-theoretic semantics.}
}
@inproceedings{MonAlbChe08-ICLP-IC,
  author = {Marco Montali and Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani and 
	Marco Gavanelli and	Evelina Lamma and	Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {Verification from declarative specifications using Logic Programming},
  booktitle = {Logic Programming, 24th International Conference, ICLP 2008},
  year = 2008,
  editor = {Maria Garcia de la Banda and Enrico Pontelli},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = 5366,
  pages = {440-454},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-89982-2_39},
  keywords = {Abductive Logic Programming, SCIFF, g-SCIFF, declarative specifications, formal verification, DecSerFlow, business process management},
  abstract = {In recent years, the declarative programming philosophy has had a visible impact on new emerging disciplines, such as heterogeneous multi-agent systems and flexible business processes. We address the problem of formal verification for systems specified using declarative languages, focusing in particular on the Business Process Management field. We propose a verification method based on the g-SCIFF abductive logic programming proof procedure and evaluate our method empirically, by comparing its performance with that of other verification frameworks.},
  pdf = {http://www-lia.deis.unibo.it/Research/TechReport/lia08004.pdf},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/26658n2069251841/},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {978-3-540-89981-5}
}
@inproceedings{GavAlbLam09-ECAI-IC,
  author = {Marco Gavanelli and Marco Alberti and Evelina Lamma},
  title = {Integrating Abduction and Constraint Optimization in Constraint Handling Rules},
  booktitle = {ECAI 2008: 18th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence},
  year = {2008},
  editor = {Malik Ghallab and Constantine D. Spyropoulos
  	and Nikos Fakotakis and Nikos Avouris},
  month = {July},
  publisher = {IOS press},
  pages = {903--904},
  doi = {10.3233/978-1-58603-891-5-903},
  url = {http://www.ece.upatras.gr/ecai2008/},
  keywords = {Abduction, Constraint Optimization, Logic and Constraint Programming, Logic Programming}
}
@inproceedings{AlbCatGav09-ICWS-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Massimiliano Cattafi and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma and
 Federico Chesani and Marco Montali and Paola Mello and Paolo Torroni},
  title = {Integrating Abductive Logic Programming and Description Logics in a Dynamic Contracting Architecture},
  year = 2009,
  editor = {Paul Hofmann},
  booktitle = {ICWS 2009: 2009 IEEE International Conference on Web Services},
  accept_rate = {15.6\%},
  abstract = {In Semantic Web technologies, searching for a service means to identify
components that can potentially satisfy the user
needs in terms of outputs and effects (discovery), and that, when invoked
by the customer, can fruitfully interact with her (contracting).
In this paper, we present an application framework that encompasses both the
discovery and the contracting steps, in a unified search process.
In particular, we accommodate service discovery by
ontology-based reasoning, and contracting by reasoning about policies published in a formal
language. To this purpose, we consider a formal approach grounded on Computational Logic,
and Abductive Logic Programming in particular. We propose a framework,
called SCIFF Reasoning Engine,
able to establish, by ontological and abductive reasoning,  if a semantic web service  and a requester can
fruitfully inter-operate, taking as input the behavioural interfaces
of both the participants, and producing as output a
sort of a contract.},
  url = {http://conferences.computer.org/icws/2009/},
  publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press},
  pages = {254--261},
  doi = {10.1109/ICWS.2009.78},
  organization = {IEEE Computer Society},
  isbn = {978-0-7695-3709-2}
}
@inproceedings{GavAlbLam09-ICLP-IC,
  author = {Marco Gavanelli and Marco Alberti and  Evelina Lamma},
  title = {Integration of abductive reasoning and constraint optimization in {SCIFF}},
  year = 2009,
  editor = {Patricia M. Hill and David S. Warren},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = 5649,
  pages = {387--401},
  booktitle = {25th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2009)},
  abstract = {Abductive Logic Programming (ALP) and Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) share
the feature to constrain the set of possible solutions to a program via integrity or CLP constraints.
These two frameworks have been merged in works by various authors, which developed efficient abductive proof-procedures empowered with constraint satisfaction techniques.
However, while almost all CLP languages provide algorithms for finding an optimal solution with respect to some objective function (and not just {\em any} solution), the issue has received little attention in ALP.

In this paper we show how optimisation meta-predicates can be included in  abductive proof-pro\-ce\-dures, achieving in this way a significant improvement to research and practical applications of abductive reasoning.

In the paper, we give the declarative and operational semantics of an abductive proof-procedure that encloses constraint optimization meta-predicates, and we prove soundness in the three-valued completion semantics.
In the proof-procedure, the abductive logic program can invoke optimisation meta-predicates, which can invoke abductive predicates, in a recursive way.},
  keywords = {Abductive Logic Programming, Constraint Logic Programming, Constraint Optimization, Constraint Handling Rules},
  url = {http://www.ist.unomaha.edu/iclp2009/},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  address = {Berlin Heidelberg},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  isbn = {978-3-642-02845-8}
}
@inproceedings{AlbGavLam10-ICLP-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Marco Gavanelli and Evelina Lamma},
  title = {Runtime Addition of Integrity Constraints in Abductive Logic Programs },
  booktitle = {Technical Communications of the 26th International Conference on Logic Programming},
  year = 2010,
  editor = {Manuel Hermenegildo and Torsten Schaub},
  volume = 7,
  series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  address = {Dagstuhl, Germany},
  month = {July},
  pages = {4-13},
  publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  url = {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2010/2616},
  doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICLP.2010.4},
  isbn = {978-3-939897-17-0},
  issn = {1868-8969}
}
@inproceedings{AlbGomGon11-CLIMA-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Ana Sofia Gomes and Ricardo Gon\c{c}alves and  Jo{\~a}o Leite and Martin Slota},
  title = {Normative Systems Represented as Hybrid Knowledge Bases},
  year = 2011,
  editor = {Jo{\~a}o Leite and
               Paolo Torroni and
               Thomas {\AA}gotnes and
               Guido Boella and
               Leon van der Torre},
  booktitle = {Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems - 12th International  Workshop, CLIMA XII, Barcelona, Spain, July 17-18, 2011. Proceedings},
  pages = {330-346},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
  month = {July},
  publisher = {Springer Verlag},
  volume = 6814,
  isbn = {978-3-642-22358-7},
  ee = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22359-4_23},
  abstract = {Normative systems have been advocated as an effective tool to regulate
interaction in multi-agent systems.

Logic programming rules intuitively correspond to conditional norms,
and their semantics is based on the closed world assumption, which
allows default negation, often used in norms. However, there are cases
where the closed world assumption is clearly not adequate, and others
that require reasoning about unknown individuals, which is not
possible in logic programming.

On the other hand, description logics are based on the open world
assumption and support reasoning about unknown individuals, but
do not support default negation.

In this paper, we demonstrate the need for the aforementioned features
(closed and open world assumptions, and reasoning about unknown
individuals) in order to model human laws, with examples from the
Portuguese Penal Code. We advocate the use of hybrid knowledge bases
combining rules and ontologies, which provide the joint expressivity
of logic programming and description logics.

We define a normative scenario as the pair of a set of facts and a set
of norms, and give it a formal semantics by translation into an MKNF
knowledge base.

We describe the implementation of the language, which computes the
relevant consequences of given facts and norms, and use it to
establish the resulting sentence in a penal scenario.
}
}
@inproceedings{AlbGomGon12-AAMAS-IC,
  author = {Marco Alberti and Ana Sofia Gomes and Ricardo Gon\c{c}alves and Matthias Knorr and Jo{\~a}o Leite and Martin Slota},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems},
  year = 2012,
  editor = {van der Hoek, Wiebe and Padgham, Lin and Conitzer, Vincent and Winikoff, Michael},
  ee = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2344040},
  pages = {1425-1426},
  location = {Valencia, Spain},
  publisher = {International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems},
  address = {Richland, SC},
  keywords = {design languages for agent systems, knowledge representation, norms, organisations and institutions},
  title = {Normative systems require hybrid knowledge bases.},
  year = 2012
}
@inproceedings{AlbCotRigZes16-AIIA-IC,
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence ({AI*IA2016}),
Genova, Italy,  28 November - 1 December 2016},
  editor = {Giovanni Adorni and Stefano Cagnoni and Marco Gori and Marco Maratea},
  year = {2016},
  title = {Probabilistic Logical Inference On the Web},
  author = {Marco Alberti and Giuseppe Cota and Fabrizio Riguzzi and Riccardo Zese},
  abstract = {cplint on SWISH is a web application for probabilistic
    logic programming. It allows users to perform inference and
    learning using just a web browser, with the computation performed
    on the server. In this paper we report on recent advances in the
    system, namely the inclusion of algorithms for computing
    conditional probabilities with exact, rejection sampling and
    Metropolis-Hasting methods. Moreover, the system now allows hybrid
    programs, i.e., programs where some of the random variables are
    continuous. To perform inference on such programs likelihood
    weighting is used that makes it possible to also have evidence on
    continuous variables. cplint on SWISH offers also the
    possibility of sampling arguments of goals, a kind of inference
    rarely considered but useful especially when the arguments are
    continuous variables. Finally, cplint on SWISH offers the
    possibility of graphing the results, for example by drawing the
    distribution of the sampled continuous arguments of goals.},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  address = {Heidelberg, Germany},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {10037},
  copyright = {Springer International Publishing AG},
  keywords = {Probabilistic Logic Programming, Probabilistic Logical Inference, Hybrid program},
  pdf = {http://ml.unife.it/wp-content/uploads/Papers/AlbCotRig-AIXIA16.pdf},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-49130-1_26},
  pages = {351-363},
  venue = {Genova, Italy},
  eventdate = {November 28-December 1, 2016},
  isbn-online = {978-3-319-49129-5},
  isbn-print = {978-3-319-49130-1},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  scopus = {2-s2.0-85006074125},
  wos = {WOS:000389797400026},
  note = {The final publication is available at Springer via
\url{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49130-1_26}}
}
@inproceedings{AlbLamRigZes16-AIIA-IC,
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence ({AI*IA2016}),
Genova, Italy,  28 November - 1 December 2016},
  editor = {Giovanni Adorni and Stefano Cagnoni and Marco Gori and Marco Maratea},
  year = {2016},
  title = {Probabilistic Hybrid Knowledge Bases under the Distribution
  Semantics},
  author = {Marco Alberti and Evelina Lamma and Fabrizio Riguzzi and Riccardo Zese},
  abstract = {Since Logic Programming (LP) and Description Logics (DLs) are based on
  different assumptions (the closed and the open world assumption,
  respectively), combining them provides higher expressiveness in
  applications  that require both
  assumptions.

  Several proposals have been made to combine LP and DLs. An especially
  successful line of research is the one based on the Lifschitz's
  logic of Minimal Knowledge with Negation as Failure (MKNF).  Motik
  and Rosati introduced Hybrid knowledge bases (KBs), composed of LP
  rules and DL axioms, gave them an MKNF semantics and
  studied their complexity. Knorr et al. proposed a well-founded semantics for
  Hybrid KBs where the LP clause heads are non-disjunctive, which
  keeps querying polynomial (provided the underlying DL is polynomial)
  even when the LP portion is non-stratified.

  In this paper, we propose Probabilistic Hybrid Knowledge Bases (PHKBs),
  where the atom in the head of LP clauses and each DL axiom is
  annotated with a probability value. PHKBs are given a distribution
  semantics by defining a probability distribution over deterministic
  Hybrid KBs. The probability of a query being true is the sum of the
  probabilities of the deterministic KBs that entail the query. Both
  epistemic and statistical probability can be addressed, thanks to
  the integration of probabilistic LP and DLs.},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  address = {Heidelberg, Germany},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {10037},
  copyright = {Springer International Publishing AG},
  issn = {0302-9743},
  keywords = {Probabilistic Logic Programming, Probabilistic Description Logics, Hybrid Knowledge Bases},
  pdf = {http://ml.unife.it/wp-content/uploads/Papers/AlbLamRig-AIXIA16.pdf},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-49130-1_27},
  pages = {364-376},
  venue = {Genova, Italy},
  scopus = {2-s2.0-85005950065},
  wos = {WOS:000389797400027},
  eventdate = {November 28-December 1, 2016},
  isbn-online = {978-3-319-49129-5},
  isbn-print = {978-3-319-49130-1},
  note = {The final publication is available at Springer via
\url{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49130-1_27}}
}
@inproceedings{AlbGavLam17-RR-IC,
  author = {Alberti, Marco and Gavanelli, Marco
and Lamma, Evelina
and Riguzzi, Fabrizio
and Riccardo, Zese},
  editor = {Costantini, Stefania
and Franconi, Enrico
and Van Woensel, William
and Kontchakov, Roman
and Sadri, Fariba
and Roman, Dumitru},
  title = {Dischargeable Obligations in Abductive Logic Programming},
  booktitle = {Rules and Reasoning: International Joint Conference,
 RuleML+RR 2017, London, UK, July 12--15, 2017, Proceedings},
  year = {2017},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  copyright = {Springer International Publishing AG},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  volume = {10364},
  address = {Cham},
  isbn-print = {978-3-319-61251-5},
  isbn-online = {978-3-319-61252-2},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-61252-2_2},
  pdf = {http://ml.unife.it/wp-content/uploads/Papers/AlbGavLam-RR17.pdf},
  pages = {7--21},
  abstract = {
Abductive Logic Programming (ALP) has been proven very
effective for formalizing societies of agents, commitments and norms, in
particular by mapping the most common deontic operators (obligation,
prohibition, permission) to abductive expectations.
In our previous works, we have shown that ALP is a suitable framework
for representing norms. Normative reasoning and query answering were
accommodated by the same abductive proof procedure, named SCIFF.
In this work, we introduce a defeasible
flavour in this framework, in order
to possibly discharge obligations in some scenarios. Abductive expectations
can also be qualified as dischargeable, in the new, extended syntax.
Both declarative and operational semantics are improved accordingly,
and proof of soundness is given under syntax allowedness conditions.
The expressiveness and power of the extended framework, named SCIFFD,
is shown by modeling and reasoning upon a fragment of the Japanese
Civil Code. In particular, we consider a case study concerning manifestations
of intention and their rescission (Section II of the Japanese Civil
Code).},
  keywords = {Abduction, Abductive Logic Programming, Legal Reasoning,
Normative Reasoning},
  note = {The final publication is available at Springer via
 \url{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61252-2_2}}
}

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