author = {Azzolini, Damiano
and Riguzzi, Fabrizio
and Lamma, Evelina},
  editor = {Abramowicz, Witold
and Corchuelo, Rafael},
  title = {Analyzing Transaction Fees with Probabilistic Logic Programming},
  booktitle = {Business Information Systems Workshops BIS 2019},
  year = {2019},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  address = {Cham},
  copyright = {Springer},
  pages = {243--254},
  abstract = {Fees are used in Bitcoin to prioritize transactions. Transactions with high associated fee are usually included in a block faster than those with lower fees. Users would like to pay just the minimum amount to make the transaction confirmed in the desired time. Fees are collected as a reward when transactions are included in a block so, on the other perspective, miners usually process first the most profitable transactions, i.e. the one with higher fee rate. Bitcoin is a dynamic system influenced by several variables, such as transaction arrival time and block discovery time making the prediction of the confirmation time a hard task. In this paper we use probabilistic logic programming to model how fees influence the confirmation time and how much fees affect miner's revenue.},
  isbn = {978-3-030-36691-9},
  issn = {1865-1348},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-36691-9_21},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing},
  volume = {373},
  url = {http://ml.unife.it/wp-content/uploads/Papers/AzzRigLam-BIS19.pdf},
  note = {The final publication is available at Springer via \url{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36691-9_21}}
  author = {Damiano Azzolini  and Fabrizio Riguzzi and Evelina Lamma},
  title = {Studying Transaction Fees in the Bitcoin Blockchain with Probabilistic Logic Programming},
  journal = {Information},
  publisher = {MDPI},
  copyright = {CCBY},
  year = {2019},
  pdf = {https://www.mdpi.com/2078-2489/10/11/335/pdf},
  doi = {10.3390/info10110335},
  abstract = {
In Bitcoin, if a miner is able to solve a computationally hard problem called proof of work, it will receive an amount of bitcoin as a reward which is the sum of the fees for the transactions included in a block plus an amount inversely proportional to the number of blocks discovered so far. At the moment of writing, the block reward is several orders of magnitude greater than the sum of transaction fees. Usually, miners try to collect the largest reward by including transactions associated with high fees. The main purpose of transaction fees is to prevent network spamming. However, they are also used to prioritize transactions. In order to use the minimum amount of fees, users usually have to find a compromise between fees and urgency of a transaction. In this paper, we develop a probabilistic logic model to experimentally analyze how fees affect confirmation time and miner's revenue and to predict if an increase of average fees will generate a situation when the miner gets more reward by not following the protocol.},
  keywords = { bitcoin, blockchain, probabilistic logic programming
  address = {Basel, Switzerland},
  volume = {10},
  number = {11},
  pages = {335}
  title = {A Comparison of {MCMC} Sampling for Probabilistic Logic Programming},
  author = {Damiano Azzolini and Fabrizio Riguzzi and Evelina Lamma and Franco Masotti },
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence ({AI*IA2019}),
Rende, Italy 19-22 November 2019},
  year = 2019,
  editor = {Mario Alviano and Gianluigi Greco and
Francesco Scarcello},
  publisher = {Springer},
  address = {Heidelberg, Germany},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  venue = {Rende, Italy},
  eventdate = {November 19-22, 2019},
  copyright = {Springer},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-35166-3_2},
  volume = {11946},
  pages = {18-29},
  url = {http://ml.unife.it/wp-content/uploads/Papers/AzzRIgKLamMas-AIXIA19.pdf},
  isbn-print = {978-3-030-35165-6},
  isbn-online = {978-3-030-35166-3},
  note = {The final publication is available at Springer via \url{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35166-3_2}}
  author = {Cota, Giuseppe and Riguzzi, Fabrizio and Lamma, Evelina and Zese, Riccardo},
  title = {{KRaider}: a Crawler for Linked Data},
  year = {2019},
  series = {CEUR Workshop Proceedings},
  publisher = {Sun {SITE} Central Europe},
  address = {Aachen, Germany},
  volume = {2396},
  editor = {Alberto Casagrande and Eugenio Omodeo},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th Italian Conference on Computational Logic},
  url = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-2396/paper35.pdf},
  pages = {202-216},
  eventdate = {June 19-21, 2019},
  venue = {Trieste, Italy},
  issn = {1613-0073},
  copyright = {by the authors},
  scopus = {2-s2.0-85071120572}
  title = {Probabilistic {DL} Reasoning with Pinpointing Formulas: A Prolog-based Approach},
  doi = {10.1017/S1471068418000480},
  journal = {Theory and Practice of Logic Programming},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  copyright = {Cambridge University Press},
  author = {Zese, Riccardo and Cota, Giuseppe and Lamma, Evelina and Bellodi, Elena and Riguzzi, Fabrizio},
  pages = {449--476},
  year = {2019},
  volume = {19},
  number = {3},
  pdf = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.06180.pdf},
  scopus = {2-s2.0-85060024345},
  doi = {10.1017/S1471068418000480}

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